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How Do Farmers Harvest and Process Coffee Beans?

how to harvest coffee beans

Last updated on April 23rd, 2024 at 09:58 am

Ever wondered how those coffee beans you grind each morning get from the farm to your cup? It’s a journey that starts with a humble fruit called a coffee cherry and involves a meticulous process of harvesting and preparation. Each bean’s voyage is a tale of nature, nurture, and the art of coffee making.

Coffee cherries grow on lush plants in equatorial regions, where dedicated farmers wait patiently for the perfect moment to harvest. This critical phase determines not just the yield but the very quality of the coffee we savor. Let’s delve into the fascinating world of coffee harvesting and discover the steps that bring out the rich flavors and aromas in every cup.

The Journey Begins – Planting and Cultivation

Arabica: The Heart of Coffee

The cultivation of Arabica coffee plants begins with careful consideration of climate and soil – two pivotal factors that profoundly influence the quality of the coffee. Arabica thrives in higher altitudes, typically between 600 to 2,200 meters above sea level, where cooler temperatures and consistent rainfall nurture the plants. The ideal climate for Arabica is often found in countries along the equatorial belt, including renowned coffee-producing regions such as Ethiopia, Colombia, and Guatemala.

When it comes to soil, Arabica coffee plants favor rich, volcanic soil that drains well. This type of soil is abundant in minerals and nutrients, providing the perfect bed for coffee roots to absorb what they need for optimal growth. The slightly acidic nature of volcanic soil also contributes to the coffee’s acidity – a desirable trait in the cup.

Robusta: The Backbone of Bold Brews

Coffee is more than just a beverage; it’s a journey that begins long before it reaches your cup. Among the various types of coffee beans plants, Robusta stands out for its resilience and bold flavour. Ideal for coffee cultivation are tropical climates along the equator, known as the Coffee Belt, where consistent temperatures and moderate rainfall provide the perfect environment for coffee plants to thrive. Volcanic soil, rich in minerals, offers the acidity needed for coffee to develop its complex flavors.

Discover the two soulful varieties of coffee plants—Arabica, known for its sweet, delicate flavor, and Robusta, with its robust and bold character. Learn about the ideal conditions that nurture these plants to fruition, from the rich, volcanic soil to the canopy of the tropical climate.

Harvesting the Cherries: A Labor of Love

Hand-Picked or Machine-Shaken?

When it comes to harvesting, there are two main methods: hand-picking and machine-shaking. Hand-picking ensures that only the ripest cherries, which house the coffee beans, are selected. This labor-intensive process is crucial for premium quality coffee as it allows for a more nuanced flavor profile. These the best Eco-friendly brewing practices of coffee harvesting. On the other hand, machine-shaking is a more efficient method used in larger farms, though it may not discriminate between ripe and unripe cherries.

Harvesting Arabica

The harvesting of Arabica beans is a meticulous process, often done by hand to ensure that only the ripest cherries are picked. This selective picking is essential as it directly affects the flavor and quality of the coffee. The cherries are then processed using various methods like washed, natural, or honey, each imparting different flavor notes to the final product.

Delve into the meticulous process of coffee picking, where every cherry is a treasure trove of potential. Understand the precision of handpicking ripe cherries for premium quality and the efficiency of machines in larger farms.

Harvesting Robusta

When it comes to harvesting, Robusta beans are typically collected in one of two ways: strip picked or machine harvested. Strip picking involves removing all cherries from the branch at once, regardless of ripeness, which is a quicker method but can affect the uniformity of the flavor. Machine harvesting is efficient and cost-effective, allowing large plantations to gather beans swiftly.

Post-Harvest Processing

After collection, the beans undergo processing, which is crucial in defining their taste. The dry method, where beans are laid out in the sun to dry, is commonly used for Robusta due to its simplicity and cost-effectiveness. This method imparts a fuller body and a more rustic flavor profile to the coffee.

Processing the Beans: Crafting the Flavor

The Big Wash

After harvesting, coffee beans undergo processing, which significantly influences their taste. The Washed method involves removing the cherry’s outer skin and washing the beans, leading to a cleaner taste. The Natural process dries the cherries whole, resulting in a fruitier flavor. The Honey method is a middle ground where some flesh remains on the bean, offering a unique taste.

Uncover the transformative coffee processing methods—Washed, Natural, and Honey—that shape the bean’s destiny. Each method, a different path to flavor, from the clean and bright Washed to the intensely fruity Natural, and the uniquely sweet Honey.

The Importance of Sustainable Coffee Farming

Sustainable coffee farming is pivotal in preserving our planet’s health and ensuring the longevity of the coffee industry. By embracing eco-friendly practices, farmers not only protect the environment but also enhance the quality of the beans. The meticulous process of growing, harvesting, and processing the beans is an art form that crafts the distinct flavors we cherish. From selecting shade-grown crops to utilizing organic fertilizers, every step taken towards sustainability contributes to a richer, more robust coffee experience.

Drying the Beans: The Crucial Step

Sun-Kissed or Machine-Dried?

Drying can be done either by basking in the sun or using mechanical dryers. Sun-drying on patios is a traditional method that imparts a distinct flavor influenced by the natural environment. Mechanical dryers, while faster, may lead to a more uniform flavor profile.

Explore how drying methods affect the coffee’s soul, whether it’s the gentle caress of the sun on patios or the consistent warmth of mechanical dryers.

Exporting the Green Coffee: From Local Farms to Global Cups

The final step before coffee beans embark on their global journey is transforming into green coffee. This stage is crucial as it determines the coffee’s quality and its readiness for export to markets worldwide, where it will eventually be roasted and brewed into the drink we all love.

Witness the green coffee’s journey as it travels from local farms to become a global sensation, ready to be roasted and savored by coffee lovers everywhere.

Roasting – The Flavor Unfolds

The Alchemy of Roasting

Roasting is the transformative stage where coffee beans reveal their true potential, unlocking a spectrum of flavors and aromas. The process involves heating the beans to high temperatures, causing chemical reactions that turn the raw, green coffee into the aromatic brown beans we know and love. The roasting level, from light to dark, significantly influences the coffee’s taste profile. Light roasts retain more of the bean’s original character, while dark roasts develop richer, bolder flavors.

Experience the alchemy of roasting, where green beans transform into aromatic treasures. From light to dark, each roast level tells a different story.

Hulling and Polishing: The Finishing Touches

Shelling the Beans

Once dried, coffee beans are encased in a parchment-like husk. Hulling is the process of removing this layer, revealing the green coffee bean inside. Following hulling, polishing is an optional step that removes any remaining silver skin, enhancing the bean’s appearance and preparing it for roasting.

Finally, learn about hulling and polishing, the last steps before the beans embark on their journey to your cup.


The journey of coffee is a meticulous one, from the careful harvesting of coffee beans to the precise art of roasting. Each step plays a pivotal role in shaping the final cup of coffee, reflecting the dedication and skill of countless individuals along the way.

From Cherry to Cup:

The path from coffee picking to sipping involves numerous hands, each dedicated to perfecting the coffee experience. The coffee harvest is just the beginning of a bean’s voyage through processing, drying, and roasting, culminating in the rich flavors we savor.

Appreciation for Coffee:

Understanding the intricate process of how coffee is harvested and prepared invites a deeper appreciation for every sip. Recognizing how to harvest coffee beans and the impact of each stage on the flavor allows us to celebrate the complexity behind our daily brew.


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